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How obesity raises the risk of diseases like heart attack & diabetes

The chance of having obesity-related comorbidities increases exponentially once BMI exceeds 30/Kg m2. Life expectancy decreases dramatically when BMI surpasses 40 kg/m2 (Morbid obesity). Obesity is thus more than just an aesthetic consideration or a danger factor. According to the World Health Organization, it is a disease condition in and of itself.

Obesity is described as an abnormal buildup of fat that harms health. It is a sickness that has reached epidemic proportions in India as well. Its rising incidence in children and adolescents is particularly concerning. Obesity is thus more than just an aesthetic consideration or a danger factor. It is a sickness condition in and of itself. The chance of having obesity-related comorbidities increases exponentially once BMI exceeds 30/Kg m2. Life expectancy decreases dramatically when BMI surpasses 40 kg/m2 (Morbid obesity).

Obesity is more than simply a cosmetic issue. It’s a health problem that increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and various cancers.

Obesity causes or worsens a number of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, liver dysfunction, respiratory and musculoskeletal issues, infertility, psychological difficulties, and some forms of cancer.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of adult-onset diabetes and is closely linked to obesity and overweight. As a result, the term “diabesity” was established to describe this dual pandemic. Insulin resistance, caused by aberrant production of harmful inflammatory cytokines from visceral adipose tissue, as well as beta cell lipotoxicity, which impairs insulin secretion, is an essential trait that connects obesity and diabetes.

These cytokines are also linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Central obesity, waist circumference, weight-to-height ratio, and visceral adiposity index are more accurate predictors of heart disease risk. A number of metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have been identified as risk factors for heart disease.

Obesity and physical inactivity are widely acknowledged to be the most significant modifiable risk factors for primary cancer prevention. Central obesity (Indian obesity), like cigarette use, is an independent indicator of increased cancer risk. Waist circumference is associated with malignancies of the uterus, breast, colon, pancreas, and liver, implying a pathogenetic relationship between visceral adiposity and these organ cancers. Importantly, there is growing evidence to suggest the role of weight loss in lowering obesity-related cancer risks.

According to the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) research, bariatric surgery lowered cancer risk in women by 42%. Insulin resistance and prolonged compensatory hyperinsulinemia are known to be important factors in obesity-related malignancies. Increased insulin levels have mitogenic effects by activating insulin receptors as well as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, which stimulate uncontrolled cell proliferation and suppress cell death (apoptosis) in numerous organs, which is a hallmark of cancer. Obese people’ increased oestrogens and androgens facilitate cancer effects, notably in the uterus and breast. Finally, with obesity, circulating adipokines and persistent low-grade inflammatory states directly cause cancer.

Health is a state of social, mental and physical well-being. Controlling weight aids in decreasing weight gain linked with comorbid conditions such as cancer, and living a healthy lifestyle is essential for staying attractive and having a higher quality of life.

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